Digital traces - the reason why everybody shall use privacy tools

by Rudolf Faix Friday, June 24, 2016 8:58 AM

The people need to accept the fact that there is nothing free of charge in this world. Whenever something is offered for free, you'll pay with your personal data. It is easy for everybody to combine data from the network as long as the people don't know how to protect themselves from such data collections. Such a data collection can even be done on each server by analyzing the log files. For example, if someone visits one page then each request and data transfer get logged together with his IP address. If he writes a comment than he needs to logon or enter his email address. Already with this data can get seen what has been interesting for this visitor.

I can see which articles or postings he has been reading and can combine all this information to a profile about the visitor. That is already dangerous for the privacy from such a small site like mine. Calculate this information now up to a size like Google, Facebook, LinkedIn, etc. Together with the data which are getting daily produced. If some company has now different content at the landing pages (maybe is using different company names too) than they even know which kind of promotion is suitable for the visitor, especially if the visitor has been shortly before visiting other sites from the same (marketing) company too. For this purpose I even don't need any cookies or other technologies like log-in with a social network account. Think now about the possibilities from the social networks when you are using their "easy" log-on service for other sites.

Maybe that is one of the reasons why the safe harbor contract between Europe and the U.S. got cancelled. Think about the possibilities a mobile phone provider has, which even knows in which cell your phone is logged in and which knows all your phone and data traffic without using any additional technology. You can be sure that they combine now even your shopping behavior (payment function of the mobile phone) with the data they already have about you.

With a technical background knowledge from above are the word filters a really very small problem. George Orwell's 1984 is already reality. Every company has access to the data as soon as you install something from Googles Playstore, Apples Appstore, Microsoft's Appstore.

  • Why do you think Windows 10 got given away for free as an upgrade for existing systems?
  • Why Microsoft has forced the update to Windows 10?
  • Why Microsoft bought LinkedIn?
  • Why WhatsApp got bought from Facebook?
  • Why big companies are spending a lot of money for providing free services?
  • Why Apple made such problems with unlocking the terrorists phone?

Each company is obliged to her shareholders. Not one company is able to survive only by giving something away for free. The capital from the big players on the market like Google, Microsoft, Facebook, etc. is not endless. Big investments are not getting done for the reason of their kindness. Free service are getting offered for the reason of collecting data. The collected data are the capital from such companies which are offering free services.

The case between Apple and the authorities has been only a promotion for Apple to make the users thinking that their devices are so secure. In reality is it nothing else than to extend their own database with additional user data. The iPhone from the terrorist could get hacked in seconds with the tools from the underground scene and FBI, NSA, etc. have even better tools.

If you connect a WiFi access point (not a WiFi router) and use a computer (Linux or Windows) as a router you are able to run a software which is capturing all the traffic coming from the device. A router based on Windows is even more comfortable to use for this purpose than Linux. Each Internet provider is able making the same at your Internet connection. Is it not frightening?

Have you ever wondered why some online ads you see are targeted to your tastes and interests? Or how websites remember your preferences from visit-to-visit or device-to-device? The answer may be in the "cookies" - or some other online tracking methods like device fingerprinting and cross-device tracking.

Windows tools for traffic analysis are for example WinPcap, Whireshark, SmartSniff, etc. They are the same tools which you are using for debugging network connections. The most of them are free of charge available.

As I have been running a WiFi Internet provider business I have used Trafmeter for billing purposes. Even Trafmeter had the function to capture all the traffic from any device or any destination (IP-based for the destination and/or MAC address based for the direct connected devices)

One of the oldest tracking system on the web is getting called Cookies. A cookie is an information saved by your web browser. When you visit a website, the site might store a cookie so it can recognize your device in the future. Later if you return to that site, it can read that cookie to remember you from your last visit. By keeping track of you over time, cookies can be used to customize your browsing experience, or to deliver ads targeted to you.

First-party cookies are placed by the site that you are visiting. They can make your experience on the web more efficient. For example, they help sites to remember:

  • items in your shopping cart
  • your log-in name
  • your preferences, like always showing the weather in your area
  • your game scores.

Third-party cookies are placed by someone other than the site you are on. For example, the website may partner with an advertising network to deliver some of the ads you see. Or they may partner with an analytics company to help understand how people use their site. These "third party" companies also may place cookies in your browser to monitor your behavior over time and from different websites.

Over time, these companies may develop a detailed history of the types of sites you frequent, and they may use this information to deliver ads tailored to your interests. For example, if an advertising company notices that you read a lot of articles about running, it may show you ads about running shoes - even on unrelated sites you're visiting for the first time.

A Flash cookie is a small file stored on your computer by a website that uses Adobe's Flash player technology. Flash cookies use Adobe's Flash player to store information about your online browsing activities. Flash cookies can be used to replace cookies used for tracking and advertising, because they also can store your settings and preferences. Similarly, companies can place unique HTML5 cookies within a browser's local storage to identify a user over time. When you delete or clear cookies from your browser, you will not necessarily delete the Flash cookies stored on your computer.

Device fingerprinting can track devices over time, based on your browser's configurations and settings. Because each browser is unique, device fingerprinting can identify your device, without using cookies. Since device fingerprinting uses the characteristics of your browser configuration to track you, deleting cookies won't help.

Device fingerprinting technologies are evolving and can be used to track you on all kinds of internet-connected devices that have browsers, such as smart phones, tablets, laptop and desktop computers. 

When you access mobile applications, companies don't have access to traditional browser cookies to track you over time. Instead, third party advertising and analytics companies use device identifiers - such as Apple iOS's Identifiers for Advertisers ("IDFA") and Google Android's Advertising ID - to monitor the different applications used on a particular device.

More and more, consumer devices, in addition to phones, are capable of being connected online. For example, smart entertainment systems often provide new ways for you to watch TV shows and movies, and also may use technology to monitor what you watch. Look to the settings on your devices to investigate whether you can reset identifiers on the devices or use web interfaces on another device to limit ad tracking.

Controlling Online Tracking

How can I control cookies?

Various browsers have different ways to let you delete cookies or limit the kinds of cookies that can be placed on your computer. When you choose a browser, consider which suits your privacy preferences best.

To check out the settings in a browser, use the 'Help' tab or look under 'Tools' for settings like 'Options' or 'Privacy.' From there, you may be able to delete cookies, or control when they can be placed. Some browsers allow add-on software tools to block, delete, or control cookies. And security software often includes options to make cookie control easier.  If you delete cookies, companies may not be able to associate you with your past browsing activity.  However, they may be able to track you in the future with a new cookie.

If you block cookies entirely, you may limit your browsing experience. For example, you may need to enter information repeatedly, or you might not get personalized content that is meaningful to you. Most browsers' settings will allow you to block third-party cookies without also disabling first-party cookies.

How can I control Flash cookies and device fingerprinting?

The latest versions of Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, and Microsoft Internet Explorer let you control or delete Flash cookies through the browser's settings. If you use an older version of one of these browsers, upgrade to the most recent version, and set it to update automatically.

If you use a browser that doesn't let you delete Flash cookies, look at Adobe's Website Storage Settings panel. There, you can view and delete Flash cookies, and control whether you'll allow them on your computer.

Like regular cookies, deleting Flash cookies gets rid of the ones on your computer at that moment. Flash cookies can be placed on your computer the next time you visit a website or view an ad unless you block Flash cookies altogether.

How can I control tracking in or across mobile apps?

You can reset the identifiers on your device in the device settings. iOS users can do this by following Settings > Privacy > Advertising > Reset Advertising Identifier. For Android, the path is Google settings > Ads > Reset advertising ID.  This control works much like deleting cookies in a browser - the device is harder to associate with past activity, but tracking can start anew using the new advertising identifier.

You also can limit the use of  identifiers for ad targeting on your devices. If you turn on this setting, apps are not permitted to use the advertising identifier to serve consumers targeted ads. For iOS, the controls are available through Settings > Privacy > Advertising > Limit Ad Tracking. For Android, Google Settings > Ads > Opt Out of Interest-Based Ads. Although this tool will limit the use of tracking data for targeting ads, companies may still be able to monitor your app usage for other purposes, such as research, measurement, and fraud prevention.

Mobile browsers work much like traditional web browsers, and the tracking technologies and user controls are much the same as for ordinary web browsers, described above.

Mobile applications also may collect your geolocation to share with advertising companies. The latest versions of iOS and Android allow you to limit which particular applications can access your location information.

What is "private browsing"?

Many browsers offer private browsing settings that are meant to let you keep your web activities hidden from other people who use the same computer. With private browsing turned on, your browser won't retain cookies, your browsing history, search records, or the files you downloaded. Privacy modes aren't uniform, though; it's a good idea to check your browser to see what types of data it stores.

But note that cookies used during the private browsing session still can communicate information about your browsing behavior to third parties. So, private browsing may not be effective in stopping third parties from using techniques such as fingerprinting to track your web activity.

What are "opt-out" cookies?

Some websites and advertising networks allow you to set cookies that tell them not to use information about what sites you visit to target ads to you. For example, the Network Advertising Initiative (NAI) and the Digital Advertising Alliance (DAA) offer tools for opting out of targeted advertising - often by placing opt-out cookies. If you delete all cookies, you'll also delete the cookies that indicate your preference to opt out of targeted ads.

Cookies are used for many purposes - for example, to limit the number of times you're shown a particular ad. So even if you opt out of targeted advertising, a company may still use cookies for other purposes.

What is "Do Not Track"?

Do Not Track is a setting in most internet browsers that allows you to express your preference not to be tracked across the web. Turning on Do Not Track through your web browser sends a signal to every website you visit that you don't want to be tracked from site to site. Companies then know your preference. If they have committed to respect your Do Not Track preference, they are legally required to do so. However, most tracking companies today have not committed to honoring users' Do Not Track preferences.

Can I block online tracking?

Consumers can learn about tracker-blocking browser plugins which block the flow of information from a computer to tracking companies and allow consumers to block ads. They prevent companies from using cookies or fingerprinting to track your internet behavior.

To find tracker-blocking plugins, type "tracker blocker" in your search engine. Then, compare features to decide which tracker blocker is best for you. For example, some of them block tracking by default, while others require you to customize when you'll block tracking.

Remember that websites that rely on third party tracking companies for measurement or advertising revenue may prevent you from using their site if you have blocking software installed. However, you can still open those sites in a separate browser that doesn't have blocking enabled, or you can disable blocking on those sites.


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I'm since more then 35 years in the computer business (programming and technical support) and using the Internet since it has started. Since 2002 I'm programming solutions for Asterisk and since 2004 I'm in the call center industry.


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